Southeast Asia’s governments impose the toughest drug laws on the planet. You can’t blame them – the legendary “Golden Triangle”, a patch of real estate bordering Thailand, Laos and Myanmar, is smack in the heart of the region, and is a world hotspot of narcotics production. (The CIA Factbook calls Myanmar the “world's second largest producer of illicit opium”).
In spite of such draconian measures, certain places are flush with illegal drugs. However, you should still defer to local laws when offered a chance to indulge – your status as a foreigner does not make you less likely to be punished for drug use, quite the opposite!
Some general, unsolicited advice:
- Don’t bring your personal stash with you. Don’t get conned into carrying drugs for others, whether as personal favors or for profit. The risks far outweigh the possibility of getting away with it. You can bet the Bali Nine or Schapelle Corby (see Notable Arrests below) thought they could get away with it, too.
- If you’re bringing prescription drugs with you, play it safe and bring the prescription for these drugs.
Notable Drug Arrests
- Schappelle Corby - convicted of smuggling almost 10 pounds of marijuana into Bali. She could have received a death penalty – instead, the judge sentenced her to 20 years in prison. (Schapelle Corby – Wikipedia)
- Nguyen Tuong Van - hanged at Singapore’s Changi prison in 2005. He had been caught with 14 ounces of heroin at Changi International Airport during a stopover between Cambodia and Australia. The Singapore government denied the Australian government’s request for clemency. (Nguyen Van Tuong – Wikipedia)
- The Bali Nine – an Australian drug ring facing the death penalty for smuggling heroin into Bali. They are being held for attempting to smuggle 18 pounds of heroin into Bali. (Bali Nine – Wikipedia)
- Michelle Leslie - Australian model caught with two Ecstasy pills in 2005. She later pleaded guilty to possession, was sentenced to time served, and was released. (Michelle Leslie – Wikipedia)
- Kevin John Barlow and Brian Geoffrey Chambers were hanged in Malaysia in 1986 for trafficking five ounces of heroin. (Barlow and Chambers execution – Wikipedia)
Drug Laws and Penalties in Southeast Asia – by Country
Southeast Asian countries have strict laws in place for drug-related offenses, and aren't afraid to use them.
The region's diplomats aren't afraid to ignore appeals for clemency from Western governments, if any are made at all. Americans under arrest on drug-related charges pose a dilemma for the State Department - the U.S. government may jeopardize its own war on drugs if it intercedes in such cases.
The pertinent laws and penalties for each country are listed in brief below.
The death penalty was abolished in Cambodia, but drug laws remain strict for those caught with controlled substances, at least on paper. Cambodia's laws prescribe punishment ranging from 5 years to life in prison, but law enforcement is lax.
- Drugs in Cambodia - "Pot Prohibition Never Really Caught On"
- Law on the Control of Drugs - Cambodia (PDF)
Indonesian drug laws prescribe the death penalty for narcotics trafficking and up 20 years in prison for marijuana offenses. Simple possession of Group 1 drugs results in prison terms of four to twelve years. More on Indonesia's drug laws here: Drug Laws in Bali and the Rest of Indonesia.
The Criminal Code of Laos penalizes possession of narcotics under Article 135. Under a new amendment to the existing Code, possession of at least 3.5 ounces (100g) of heroin can get you 10 years' imprisonment and a fine of up to $35,000 (100 million kip).
- Laos Confident New Anti-Narcotic Law Will Effectively Help Combat Drug Problems (Voice of America)
- United Nations Third Committee, Item 104: Laos, International Drug Control (UN.int)
Long jail sentences and heavy fines are mandatory for suspects caught with controlled substances, and the death penalty is prescribed for drug traffickers. the law presumes you are trafficking in drugs if you’re caught in possession of at least half an ounce of heroin or at least seven ounces of marijuana.
The law prescribes the death penalty for drug traffickers caught with at least 0.3 ounce of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine, marijuana resin, or at least 17 ounces of marijuana. The Philippines has imposed a moratorium on the death penalty, but drug offenders are still punished harshly if caught – the minimum sentence is 12 years in prison for possession of.17 ounce of illegal drugs.
The Misuse of Drugs Act is very strict – persons caught with at least half an ounce of heroin, at least 1 ounce of morphine or cocaine, or at least 17 ounces of marijuana are presumed to be trafficking in drugs, and face a mandatory death penalty. 400 people were hanged for drug trafficking in Singapore between 1991 and 2004. For more information, read our article: Drug Laws in Singapore.
- Separating fact from fiction, despite a deep sense of human compassion: the Singaporean High Commissioner (Ambassador) to Australia explains Singapore's harsh stance against drug offenders, in the light of the death penalty imposed on Australian citizen Nguyen Tuong Van
In Thailand, the law prescribes the death penalty for carrying category I narcotics (heroin) "for the purpose of disposal". The death penalty for drug trafficking has not been imposed since 2004, but rehabilitation counselling is often imposed on convicted drug users.
Vietnam strictly enforces its drug laws. As prescribed by Article 96a and Article 203 of the Vietnamese Criminal Code, possession of heroin in quantities larger than 1.3 pounds gets you a mandatory death sentence. In 2007, 85 people were executed for drug related offenses.